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North Karelia Project/FINMONICA/Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia
Venous blood samples were taken at baseline and serum specimens were stored at or below 20°C.
"Holotranscobalamin was measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay by AxSym System (Active-B12 [holotranscobalamin], Axis-Shield, Dundee, UK, Abbott Laboratories). At the levels of 48 and 97 pM/L, the interassay CV were 7.1% and 8.0%."
Participants included residents residing in the areas of Kuopio and Joensuu, Finland. No other information was provided on the race or ethnicity of the participants.
Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein 1975)
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
Total dementia definition
: Dementia via DSM-IV.
"Cognitive impairment and dementia were identified in 3 phases: screening phase, clinical phase, and differential diagnosis phase. In the screening phase, subjects who scored 24 in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) , had a decline of 3 points in MMSE since the 1998 reexamination, or
had a delayed recall in Consortium to Establish a Registry for
Alzheimer’s Disease word list of 70%, or for whom there was
serious informant concern regarding the participant’s cognition,
were referred for thorough neurologic, cardiovascular, and detailed neuropsychologic examinations (the clinical phase). A review board consisting of the study physician, the study neuropsychologist, and a senior neurologist ascertained the primary diagnosis based on all available information. Subjects with possible dementia were invited to the differential diagnosis phase, which included brain imaging, CSF analysis, EKG, and blood tests. All data accumulated from the screening and clinical phases were carefully reanalyzed by the review board before establishing the final diagnosis. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria , and AD was diagnosed according to the US National Institute of Neurologic and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria."
Covariates & Analysis Detail
"Analyses were adjusted for baseline age, sex, years of full-time education, and follow-up time (model 1), and then additionally for other potential confounding or mediating factors, including APOE ϵ4 status, baseline BMI, SBP, DBP, MMSE score, history of stroke, and smoking (model 2). All variables were entered as continuous into the models except sex, APOE ϵ4, history of stroke, and smoking, which were dichotomized."
APOE e4 genotype
body mass index
diastolic blood pressure
follow up time
systolic blood pressure
per 5 pmol/L increase